What Is the Entourage Effect?

What Is the Entourage Effect?

The entourage effect is a phenomenon in cannabis that describes the synergy between different compounds found in the plant.

 These compounds include phytocannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids, all of which work together to offer different effects depending on the combination of active ingredients contained within.

Additionally, this phenomenon also applies to products derived from cannabis, such as CBD oil.

By understanding how these components interact with each other, users can better understand what effects they may experience from using cannabis or related products.


The entourage effect is a phenomenon that occurs when multiple compounds found in cannabis work together synergistically to modulate the plant’s psychoactive effects.

The three main groups of compounds that contribute to this phenomenon are phytocannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids.

Phytocannabinoids like THC and CBD activate cannabinoid receptors located throughout our bodies and have been shown to produce a variety of therapeutic effects. Other highly concentrated cannabinoids that are present include CBG, involved in improving energy and improving mental clarity and CBN, involved in sleep optimization and relaxation.

Terpenes give cannabis its unique smell and flavor and work together with cannabinoids to impart unique effects.

Flavonoids such as cannflavins A, B, and C have neuroprotective, antioxidant, and anticancer properties.

Dosing guidelines for entourage based therapies are still being developed due to the complexity of cannabis chemistry, but it is believed that combining cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids can give different types of cannabis different effects.

Full-spectrum cannabis oils or tinctures are ideal for achieving the desired entourage effect as they contain more natural compounds than isolated extracts.

Furthermore, a broad-spectrum of cannabinoids has potential use in treating cancer, while combining specific cannabinoids with terpenoids may improve their usefulness as anti-inflammatories or painkillers.

Products containing little to no THC will not be psychoactive, regardless of whether an entourage effect is present or not.


Cannabinoids are the primary active compounds in cannabis, and up to 150 have been identified in the plant, including THC, CBD, CBG, CBC, CBN, and THCV.

These phytocannabinoids interact with one another to create synergistic effects that can be used for therapeutic purposes. 

Cannabinoid ratios can range from high-THC products to balanced ratios of various cannabinoids that provide a more complete entourage effect.

Entourage products such as full-spectrum oils and tinctures are an excellent way to experience the entourage effect. 

Combining specific cannabinoids with terpenes or flavonoids may reduce some of THC’s adverse effects on short-term memory while improving its usefulness as an anti-inflammatory or painkiller. In addition, broad spectrum cannabinoid mixtures may improve health benefits when treating cancer.

It is important to note that the entourage effect is not exclusive to cannabis; other plants, roots, and fungi also contain active compounds that work together synergistically for medicinal purposes. Therefore, more research must be done before we fully understand this phenomenon’s potential applications in healthcare.


Terpenes and terpenoids are the primary compounds responsible for giving cannabis its unique smell and flavor while also providing health benefits when combined with cannabinoids. These aromatic compounds interact with the body in a variety of ways, creating different aromas and flavors that can be further manipulated through changes in temperature or light intensity.

In addition to their effects on aroma and taste, they may also provide medicinal benefits such as pain relief or anti-inflammatory effects. The entourage effect is created when these compounds work together in harmony, producing an overall greater effect than any single compound could produce alone.

Through careful control of the ratio of terpenes to cannabinoids, cultivators can create distinct aromatic profiles that have specific effects on mood or physical sensations. This synergy between different elements found in cannabis has been referred to as “plant synergies”, allowing for more precise results when used medicinally.

 As research continues to uncover new information about the entourage effect, it is becoming increasingly clear how terpenes and terpenoids contribute to the diverse range of possible effects that come from consuming cannabis products.


Cannflavins A, B, and C are the most prominent flavonoids in cannabis plants and have been shown to reduce inflammation, improve memory formation, protect cells from oxidative damage, and potentially inhibit cancer cell growth.

Studies suggest that combining these three compounds with other cannabinoids can enhance their health benefits due to the entourage effect.

Through this mechanism, they may be more effective at treating conditions such as pain relief, anxiety relief, or nausea reduction than if used alone.

Biphasic Effects

The effects of cannabinoids can vary depending on dosage, as they have been found to exhibit a biphasic nature. This means that the same compound may have different effects at different doses.

At low doses, cannabinoids may produce milder effects than at higher doses. For example, THC taken in small doses can provide pain relief and anti-inflammatory benefits without inducing psychoactivity; however, taking a larger dose could lead to an intense high that is not desired by some users. 

Similarly, CBD taken in lower doses can act as an anxiolytic, while higher dosages may cause drowsiness or sedation.

Combining CBD with terpenes has been shown to increase cannabinoid absorption and bioavailability while also improving the efficacy of both compounds due to their potential for enhanced synergistic effects.

In addition, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, such as regular exercise and consuming foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, can boost the body’s natural production of endocannabinoids and further enhance the entourage effect’s benefits.

CBD Product Types

CBD products come in a variety of forms, including oils, tinctures, capsules, topicals, edibles, and more. Each product type has its own unique properties that should be considered when choosing the best form for the desired effects. 

 For instance, CBD dosage may vary by product type due to absorption rate differences, and potency levels may not be consistent across all products. Additionally, there are legal issues surrounding the use of CBD, which should also be taken into account when selecting a product type.

There are additional benefits associated with using full-spectrum CBD products, such as the entourage effect, where various cannabinoids are combined to maximize their therapeutic potential. Some products have little or no THC content, so they will not produce psychoactive effects but still provide users with other health benefits such as anti-inflammation and pain relief.

Ultimately, users should assess their own needs and do research on the safety of each product before making any purchasing decisions.


The entourage effect is an important concept to understand when examining the effects of cannabis.

This synergistic combination of cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids creates unique effects based on the blend of active compounds.

The biphasic effects of this combination can be seen in products such as CBD oil, allowing for tailored experiences for users depending on their needs.

While more research is needed to fully understand all aspects of the entourage effect, it is clear that its complexity has led to a greater understanding of how cannabis affects people.


Russo, Ethan B. “Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid‐terpenoid entourage effects.” British journal of pharmacology 163.7 (2011): 1344-1364. https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01238.x

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